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Information Technology Cloud: Wireless Signal Propagation

Electronic signals for wireless communication must be converted into electromagnetic waves by an antenna for transmission. Conversely, an antenna at the receiver side is responsible for converting electromagnetic waves into electronic signals. An antenna can be omnidirectional or directional, depending on specific usage scenarios. For an antenna to be effective, it must be of a size consistent with the wavelength of the signals being transmitted or received. Antennas used in cell phones are omnidirectional and can be a short rod on the handset or hidden within the handset. A recent advancement in antenna technology is the multiple-in, multiple out (MIMO) antenna, or smart antenna, which combines spatially, separated small antennas to provide high bandwidth without consuming more power or spectrum. To take advantage of multipath propagation, these small antennas must be separated by at least half of the wavelength of the signal being transmitted or received.

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