To preserve the integrity of the many components involved in the boot process, as well as other critical Windows files, libraries, and applications, Windows implements a technology called Windows Resource Protection (WRP). WRP is implemented through access control lists (ACLs) that protect critical system files on the machine. It is also exposed through an API (located in \Windows\System32\Sfc.dll and \Windows\System32\Sfc_os.dll) that can be accessed by the Sfc.exe utility to manually check a file for corruption and restore it.
WRP will also protect entire critical folders if required, even locking down the folder so that it is inaccessible by administrators (without modifying the access control list on the folder). The only supported way to modify WRP-protected files is through the Windows Modules Installer service, which can run under the TrustedInstaller account. This service is used for the installation of patches, service packs, hotfixes, and Windows Update. This account has access to the various protected files and is trusted by the system (as its name implies) to modify critical files and replace them. WRP also protects critical registry keys, and it may even lock entire registry trees if all the values and subkeys are considered to be critical.
Unlike the previous incarnation of WRP, called WFP (Windows File Protection), this implementation does not make use of file and directory change notifications to prevent replacement of critical files. Instead, the ACL on protected files, directories, or registry keys is set so that only the TrustedInstaller account is able to modify or delete these files. Application developers can use the SfcIsFileProtected or SfcIsKeyProtected APIs to check whether a file or registry key is locked down.
For backward compatibility, certain installers are considered well-known—an application compatibility shim exists that will suppress the “access denied” error that certain installers would receive while attempting to modify WRP-protected resources. Instead, the installer receives a fake “success” code, but the modification isn’t made. This virtualization is similar to the User Access Control (UAC) virtualization technology, but it applies to write operations as well. It applies if the following are true:
• The application is a legacy application, meaning that it does not contain a manifest file compatible with Windows Vista or Windows Server 2008 with the requestedExecutionLevel value set.
• The application is trying to modify a WRP-protected resource (the file or registry key contains the TrustedInstaller SID).
• The application is being run under an administrator account (always true on systems with UAC enabled because of automatic installer program detection).
WRP copies files that are needed to restart Windows to the cache directory located at
\Windows\winsxs\Backup. Critical files that are not needed to restart Windows are not copied to the cache directory. The size of the cache directory and the list of files copied to the cache cannot be modified. To recover a file from the cache directory, you can use the System File Checker (Sfc.exe) tool, which can scan your system for modified protected files and restore them from a good copy.
Source of Information : Microsoft Press Windows Internals 5th Edition
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