Five key components are central to AD DS’s functionality. As compatibility with Internet standards has become required for new directory services, the existing implementations have adjusted and focused on these areas:
. TCP/IP compatibility—Unlike some of the original proprietary protocols such as
IPX/SPX and NetBEUI, the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) was designed to be cross-platform. The subsequent adoption of TCP/IP as an Internet standard for computer communications has propelled it to the forefront of the protocol world and essentially made it a requirement for enterprise operating systems. AD DS and Windows Server 2008 R2 utilize the TCP/IP protocol stack as their primary method of communications.
. Lightweight Directory Access Protocol support—The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) has emerged as the standard Internet directory protocol and is used to update and query data within the directory. AD DS directly supports LDAP.
. Domain name system (DNS) support—DNS was created out of a need to translate simplified names that can be understood by humans (such as www.cco.com) into an IP address that is understood by a computer (such as 184.108.40.206). The AD DS structure supports and effectively requires DNS to function properly.
. Security support—Internet standards-based security support is vital to the smooth functioning of an environment that is essentially connected to millions of computers around the world. Lack of strong security is an invitation to be hacked, and Windows Server 2008 R2 and AD DS have taken security to greater levels. Support for IP Security (IPSec), Kerberos, Certificate Authorities, and Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) encryption is built in to Windows Server 2008 R2 and AD DS.
. Ease of administration—Although often overlooked in powerful directory services implementations, the ease in which the environment is administered and configured directly affects the overall costs associated with its use. AD DS and Windows Server 2008 R2 are specifically designed for ease of use to lessen the learning curve associated with the use of a new environment. Windows Server 2008 R2 also enhanced AD DS administration with the introduction of the Active Directory Administration Center, Active Directory Web Services, and an Active Directory module for Windows PowerShell command-line administration.
Source of Information : Sams - Windows Server 2008 R2 Unleashed